Kafa administrative zone is located in the southwest part of Ethiopia with in the Southern Nations and Nationalities Regional state (SNNPR).
Kaffa administrative zone is located in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS). The Southern Region is one of the nine Regional States and two autonomous city councils of the Ethiopian Federal Government. According to the (2012) Southern Nations, Nationalities and peoples Statistical Abstract and the (2013) Kaffa Zone Finance and Economy Department (KZEFD), the SNNPRS is situated at 4º 43’- 8º 58’ latitude North and 34º 88’—39º 14’ longitude East. SNNPRS
In line with the above concept, is bordered by Kenya to the south, the Sudan Republic to the southwest, Gambela Region to the northwest and Oromia Region to the northeast. The area of the regional state is 110,931.9 km square about 10% of FDRE. Based on ethnic and linguistic identities, the region is at present divided into13 zones (sub-divided in to 126 Woredas) and 8 special Woredas. These zones and Woredas are also divided into 3851 rural Kebeles. There are also 22 town administrations and 114 towns with municipal city status and with 238 urban Kebeles (C.S.A., 2007).
Thus, Kaffa administrative zone is one of the zones within the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regional State (SNNPRS) where the research is conducted. The name of the study area, Kaffa administrative Zone is well known and is every day on the minds of the many people throughout the globe who savor the juice extracted from the berry of a plant which originally grew in Kafa, coffee (Grühl 1932:171).
The zone falls between 35.440 and 36.790 East longitude and 6.230 and 8.150 North Latitude. As described above, Kaffa administrative zone is located in the southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) in the Southwestern part of Ethiopia at about 454 Kilo meter from the capital Addis Ababa and 105 kilometers south of Jimma. According to the KZFED (2013) and SNNPRS Water Resources Bureau (WRB) (2013), Kafa zone has a total area of 10,602.7 square kilometer and it lies at an altitude ranging from 501 to 3500 meters above sea level. In Kaffa administrative zone there are no high mountains but there are many hills where large numbers of people have settled. The people habitually seek to build their homes on elevated levels as written sources and personal observation of the researcher manifests ( Bekele 2010 :17).The zone is now a day sub- divided in to ten woredas and one administrative town i.e., namely Bonga. The woredas are Bita, Chena,Cheta, Decha Gesha, Gewata ,Gimbo , Menjieo, , Saylem & Tello woredas. In line with the zone is also divided in to 17 urban and 288 rural districts (KZFED 2013).
Furthermore, according to the Kafa Administrative Zone Culture and Tourism Department (2013) the zone is about 9.65 percent of the total area of the SNNPRS. The Zone became as a Zonal administrative unit since 1992, after the overthrow of the Derg regime and subsequent assumption of power by the EPDRF Government. Besides, Kaffa zone is bordered by Oromia region on the north, north Omo zone on the east, south Omo zone in south east, Bench Maji zone on south and south west and Shaka zone on the west.
A. Administrative town of Bonga
According to the stastical data from KZFED (2013), the administrative town of Bonga is located at 70 15’ North latitude and 36014’ East longitude on the north east direction of the zone. The town has a total area of 13.7square kilometers and found at 454 kilometers far from the capital Addis Ababa to southwest direction. The population of the administrative town is about 27634; from these 14224 are males and 13410 are females (CSA 2007). The archaeological sites found in Bonga administrative town and its environ is the ceremonial -Dejjo site which has also served as the royal residence place during the early Kafa kingdom. The name of the place where this site located is Bongi Shembato. The Ceremonial stage is found on the southeastern part of Bonga town at the top hill of Bongi Shembato. As Bedru Zeman , Assefa Alemayehu and Marito Ado explained, the site had been the residence of the royal families of Kafa kings during the earlier years before 500 years back. As Lange (1982); Beiber (1920); Tekle (1985) explained after Andracha; the political center of the kingdom of Kafa was abandoned, the political center shifted from Andracha to Bonga since 16th century. Thus, it can enable us to consider what forwarded by informants explained earlier.
The Population of Kafa Zone
As we can examine from the summary and statistical report of the 2007 population and housing census produced by the Central Statistical Agency (CSA), the population of Kafa was 1,041,754. Of this total, 955,591 or 92.3 percent are living in the rural areas, while the remaining 86,163 or 7.3 percent are dwelling in urban areas. The average population density was 64.9 people per square kilometer. The administrative zone of Kafa had a population growth of 3.31 percent. If this trend of population growth continues, Kafa is expected to be inhabited by 1,692,084 people by the year 2018 (KZFED, 2013) .This would perhaps take the crude density to 152.2 person/ Km2, which implies more than double pressure on the existing natural resource. According to the same source the female- male proportion was 50.64 to 49.36 percent (Ayele 2011:55-56; Tewodros 2008: 29; KZFED 2013; SNNPR WRB 2013:12).
Similarly the statistical information collected from KZFED(2013) discloses as there are 20 ethnic groups living in the administrative zone and the ethnic composition shows that Kafa, Amhara, Sheka, and Bench accounts for 71.8%, 6.86%, 6.36% and 5.23% respectively. The Dawro, Sheko, Chara, Nao, Me'en, and Mezengir ethnic groups and others share the remaining small proportion in the area. Despite the fact that the degree of discrimination has considerably reduced the Manjos are the most discriminated people in Kafa zone. They are believed to be categorized under the Kefficho though it is the same ethnic group that discriminate the Manjo's (Ayele 2011:55-56; KZFED 2013).
In terms of sex difference males takes about 97% and females hold 100% of the population. Out of the above total population from the ages of 15-64 covers 504,879 from this 240,460 were males and 264,419 were females. The other category was those below the age 15 and above 64 which comprise about 536,133 populations from the total. Of these number 273,298 males and 262,836 females which possess children and old aged groups of the population part.
(CSA 2007; KZFED 2013:130).